Africa is one of the most bioculturally diverse areas on the planet. The continent includes a wide range of ecological climates such as the arid desert-scapes of the Sahara and the Kalahari, snow-capped alpine ranges of the High Atlas and Kilamanjaro, expansive pastoral grasslands in East Africa, tropical forests along the equator, and urban development in Johannesburg, Dakar, Casablanca, and Cairo.